Turkish financial system consists of two main financial markets: the capital market and the money market. As regards the capital market, all companies shall register and make an initial public offering to the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE), while the money market offers different kinds of credit opportunities.
The credit market consists of banks, factoring, leasing and insurance companies. There are three types of banks in Turkey; deposit banks, development/investment banks and participation banks. As of June 2011, 48 banks of the above varieties are offering their services throughout Turkey with over 10,000 branches and nearly 200,000 personnel.
The steadfast implementation of structural reforms in the banking sector that began in early 2000s resulted in a rapid growth performance in the last decade. The value of the total assets rose from USD 130 billion (December 2002) to USD 686 billion (May 2011), whereas their ratio to GDP soared from 57 percent to 85 percent during the same period.
Some important ratios realized in Turkish banking sector as of May 2011:
Capital adequacy ratio: % 17.9
Total loans / Total deposits: % 92.7
Net profit / Total assets: % 0.58
Net profit / Total shareholder’s equity: % 4.1
Banks commonly grant loans to small businesses backed by the company’s inventory or accounts receivable. Normally, there are formulas that determine the amount of loan to be granted, depending on the inventory and accounts receivable. A great deal of small business financing is accomplished through bank loans based on the business owner’s personal collateral, such as house ownership. The Small Business Administration (SBA) grants loans to small businesses and even to start-up businesses. SBA loans are applied for and administered by local banks.
Another related business practice is called factoring. So-called factors actually purchase obligations and take the risk of payment. The other financing method is leasing which is a financial product introduced by the Law on Financial Leasing, No. 3226 dated 1985. Movable or immovable goods of any description, except for non-material rights, can be leased. Leasing in Turkey can be applied in the form of domestic lease, cross - border lease, sale and lease back and sales - aid lease.
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